1902, Kharkov, 12th
1908, Chernigov, 14th
1911, Novgorod, 15th
1899, Kiev, 11th
1881, Tiflis, 5th
The Kelasurskaia Tower was part of the great Abkhazian wall, fortifications ordered by Emperor Justinian in the 6th century to protect the Black Sea port of Sukhum (currently the capital of the breakaway republic of Abkhazia) from invaders from the Northern Caucasus. Construction continued on the wall til the 17th century, and much of it still remains.
Armavir was chosen as the capital of Armenia in 331 BC, when the Orontid Dynasty declared its independence from the Achaemenid Empire. Archeological inscriptions have been found in the Elamite language about Gilgamesh, in addition to Hesoid’s poetry and quotes from Euripides. Cleopatra also figures into this history; King Tigranes II sent an expedition to Palestine to attack, and brought many Jews back in captivity to settle in Armavir. Conquerors include the Seleucids, Parthians, Roman Empire, Sassanids and then Byzantine Empire before the Arabs claimed it in 645.
A fortress built by Urartan King Rusa I, 735-713 BCE, although it did not prove stout enough to protect Urartu from Assyria.
Born in Paris and educated by Jesuits, Amour-Auguste-Louis-Joseph Berthelot, baron of Baye, described himself as “half-French, half-Russian” because of his keen interest in the archeology of the Caucasus, especially the Stone Age. He had originally gone to Russia in the 1880s at the behest of the Ministry of Education to study ancient ceramics. Presenting at several congresses, his most important excavation was the paleographic Ilskaia site in Ekaterinodar, near the Kuban River. His collections, which include numerous photographs, now reside in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Musée Guimet, Musée du Louvre, Musée des Antiquités nationales de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, and the Musée de Sèvres. President of the Société des Antiquaires de France in 1906-1907, he was also member of the Légion d’honneur.