12th Congress

1902, Kharkov, 12th

9th Congress

1893, Vilnius, 9th

10th Congress

1896, Riga, 10th

11th Congress

1899, Kiev, 11th

4th Congress

1877, Kazan, 4th

5th Congress

1881, Tiflis, 5th

6th Congress

1884, Odessa, 6th

2nd Congress

1871, St. Petersburg, 2nd

Imperial Society of Lovers of Ancient Writing

Ani

The medieval capital of the short-lived independent kingdom of Armenia, Ani lay in ruins when it was rejoined to Christian Armenia following the Russian defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1878. King Ashot III had relocated his capital from Kars to Ani in 961, but it enjoyed only a brief heyday, as successor King Gagik II succumbed to Byzantine forces in 1045. Sent there first in 1892 because he was one of the few Russian scholars fluent in Armenian, Nikolai Marr made the ruins his centerpiece for creating archeological museums in situ.