12th Congress

1902, Kharkov, 12th

13th Congress

1905, Ekaterinoslav, 13th

14th Congress

1908, Chernigov, 14th

15th Congress

1911, Novgorod, 15th

10th Congress

1896, Riga, 10th

11th Congress

1899, Kiev, 11th

Kharkov Historical Philological Society

Established in 1876 under the initial direction of A. I. Kirpichnikov, an active participant in numerous archeological congresses, other prominent members included D. I. Bagalei, the Efimenkos, and N. F. Sumtsov. The society played a crucial role in maintaining the unique historical identity of the region despite the rigors of de-Ukrainization. It established an archive in 1880 to accumulate records and manuscripts about the Cossack Hetmanate, or Zaporizhian Host that had governed from 1648 until it was absorbed into the Little Russian Collegium in 1781. Bagalei in particular was an activist in consolidating the various document collections in Kharkov as in establishing an ethnographic museum in conjunction with the 12th Congress held there. He and Sumtsov, himself of Cossack heritage and an archeologist , participated in the 1905 Revolution by pressing to end the proscription of Ukrainian publications. Their demands resulted in the Ministry of Education allowing university courses on the history and literature of Ukraine, taught in the native language.

Mel’nik, E. N.

Katerina Mel’nik began studying with Vladimir Antonovich in Kiev, one of the first female archeologists – although dramatically different from Praskovia Uvarova. She and Antonovich carried on an affair until they married in 1902, following the death of his wife. Both active participants in numerous congresses, it is impossible to imagine that others were not aware of this relationship, especially given his close relationship with Praskovia. Katerina published in Kievskaia starina, among other journals. In 1919, she was appointed to the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, but her primary seemed to be editing Antonovich’s massive archive. She also used her position there to try to organize an archeological congress in Odesa circa 1922, but without success.

Linnichenko, I. A.

Linnichenko was that rare Ukrainian archeologist who eschewed separatism and even after 1917 maintained that Little Russia was a part of the larger Russian empire. He recognized their languages and cultures to be related, but not different. He also popularized archeology with articles in Kievskaia starina.

Efimenko, A. Ia.

Alexandra Efimenko came to the profession by way of her husband Peter, though ultimately made more significant contributions than he. A native of Arkhangelsk Province, she met and married Peter there in 1870, where he had been exiled from Little Russia for nationalist-oriented activities related to his work as an ethnographer. They returned in 1874, first to Chernigov and then Kharkov; his poor health, and their five children, kept the family dependent upon her publications and lectures. Working extensively in archives, she focused on the evolution of economic and social structures of peasants in various parts of European Russia. Invited to St. Petersburg to teach Ukrainian history in Betstuzhev Female courses, 1907—1917, in 1910 Kharkov University awarded her an Honorary Doctorate of History; she was the first female recipient. Ironically, she was murdered by the Ukrainian nationalist Petliura Army in December 1918. One daughter became a Silver Age poet, and one son an important Soviet archeologist.