A lightning rod for many issues, Samokvasov levied his influence at a number of the archeological congresses. He combined his positions as director of the Archive of the Moscow Ministry of Justice with that of law professor at the University of Warsaw, and one of the most creative archeologists of the Stone Age. A devoted monarchist, he belonged to the ultra-conservative Union of Russian People after 1905.
One of Russia’s foremost geologists, Inostrantsev worked with archeologists in making determinations about the Stone Age in Russia. As a student, he worked originally in chemistry under Dmitrii Mendeleev, but a passion for rocks displaced chemistry and in 1868 be began curating the newly founded Geological Cabinet at the Academy of Sciences. In 1869 he defended his dissertation on his geological research in northern Russia, where he had uncovered numerous skulls around Lake Ladoga, which he turned over to anthropologists, who overlapped with archeologists in the Stone Age in particular. With A. P. Bogdanov, Inostrantsev helped to found the Society of Lovers of Natural Science, Anthropology and Geography. Bogdanov’s foremost mentee and activist in the IMAO Dmitrii Anuchin discovered the bones of domesticated dogs at Ladoga and named them canis inostrantsev. Inostrantsev merits mention as an archeologist because of his work in helping to decipher the prehistory of civilization.
The most important anthropologist in Imperial Russia, Anuchin provided the link between ethnography and archeology. A moderate Darwinist, and a translator of John Lubbock’s work, he never made that a credo of archeology, such as the latter did in London. Always extremely active in the congresses, he also edited the IMAO’s “Zapiski” in the 1890s. Although he never succeeded in professionalizing anthropology in Imperial Russia, today’s Institute in Moscow bears his name, as do a crater on the moon, a Kuril island, a glacier, and a mountain. For decades after Alexei Uvarov’s death he served as Praskovia’s righthand man.
Bogdanov measured skulls. He did not so much as participate in excavations himself as take the measurements of the skeletons that others sent to him, and tried to define the contours of race and ethnicity. Bogdanov provided the inspiration for and organization of the Russian Ethnographic Exhibition of 1867. Moreover, he mentored Dmitrii Anuchin, Russia’s principal ethnographer-archeologist.
Educated in the classics and serving as a professional soldier, Brandenburg found himself director of the Artillery Museum in St. Petersburg in 1872, a position he held til his death. Rising to the rank of Lt. General, he expanded his interest in displaying artefacts of artillery to the systematic excavation of numerous kurgans, especially on medieval battle fields. His greatest success came when he restored much of Staraia Ladoga, 1884-89.