Shvarts, A. N.

A. N. Shvartz served briefly as Minister of Education, under Prime Minister Peter Stolypin, 1908-1910, dismissed from such liberal policies as wanting to open universities to women and increase the quota of Jewish students; he also wanted to close all student organizations, Left and Right, in hopes of depoliticizing them. As an educator, he had curated the educational districts of Moscow, Warsaw, and Riga. His academic specialty was Greek literature and epigraphy. In a side note, he had his colleague I. V. Tsvetaev dismissed from the Rumiantsev Museum over a false accusation of theft.

Lappo-Danilevskii, A. S.

He sits here in the center, surrounded by students. Lappo-Danilevskii came to archeology by way of his intellectual desire to develop a theory of history, and he sought to combine all the social sciences in this endeavor; Albert Sorel was a model for him. For him, excavated material cultures did not simply provide primary sources, but means of understanding social and economic relations of societies historians could not themselves experience, and joined the International Sociological Institute. He included archives in the discipline of archeology and lectured at the Petersburg/Petrograd Institute of Archeology on how to read ancient diplomatic archives. Always an active public intellectual, he deplored the Bolshevik Revolution and died tragically in 1919, from blood poisoning in a botched operation after being hit by a tram in Petrograd.