Academy of Arts

Founded initially in 1757 by Ivan Shuvalov in his palace, Catherine the Great commissioned a new building, finished in in 1789, on the Neva River. Alexei Olenin, its 6th director, 1817-43, taught the first courses on archeology there, when the latter was considered an art.

Academy of Sciences

Founded by Peter the Great in 1725; archeology, though, was not included as a science.

Kiev Spiritual Academy

Founded in 1615 at the Theophany Monastery, this is the oldest Orthodox institution of higher education in Eastern Europe. Several decades later, Peter Mohyla merged it with a newly established lavra school into the Mohyla Collegium; the important theologian Feofan Prokopovich is an alumnus. Tsar Alexander I closed this in 1817, and reopened it in 1819 as the Kiev Spiritual Academy. Originally founded to train the upper echolons of the clergy, when it came under the direction of the Holy Synod, a civilian institution, they functioned more like universities that specialized in theology. Through a series of educational reforms, lay students enrolled, training for civil as well as clerical posts.

Moscow Practical Academy of Commercial Sciences

Established to train men capable of dealing with sophisticated commercial transaction, the Academy was ironically located on “Armenian Street”; Armenians were essentialized as clever traders, and enjoyed certain economic privileges in Russia.

Moscow Spiritual Academy

Organized in 1685-1687 under the guidance of two Greek brothers on the premises of the Zaikonospassky Monastery, the academy was placed under the Patriarch Prikaz. The curriculum was divided into several schools, including Slavonic and Greek writing and theology and was called the “Greek Latin School.” Then in 1721 it was transferred to the Holy Synod, and in 1775, new disciplines were introduced into the curriculum, including law, ecclesiastic history, medicine, and more ancient and new European languages. Then in 1814 it was relocated to the Troitse-Sergieva Lavra.

St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy

Founded in 1797 by the Metropolitan of St. Petersburg, the academy as part of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.