Uvarov, F. A.

Fedor was more active in the local politics of the Mozhaisk district of Moscow Province where Porech’e, the family estate was located and where his parents had excavated earlier. His one publication was on a field of kurgans from the 4th-6th centuries, on the banks of the Oka, Riazan district; his parents seemed to have put him under Anuchin’s tutelage, but that did not hold. Praskovia wrote of taking their children with them on excavations, and his two sisters attended congresses. Fedor registered as a Cossack and served briefly, before retiring to Porech’e in 1891, where he was deeply involved in zemstvo politics. He was elected to the State Council in 1909, replacing D. N. Shipov, who had left politics. After 1917 he emigrated to Yugoslavia with his mother, but ended up in Nice, where his daughter Ekaterina married Prince Sergei Obolenskii, the cream of Russian nobility to the end.

Uvarov, A. S.

The “father of Russian archeology,” Alexei Sergeevich was being educated by his father, the Minister of Education and President of the Academy of Sciences, for a diplomatic posting. Scions of the Razumovskii family, a favorite of Tsaritsa Elizabeth I, the Uvarovs had all the necessary social connections. All Alexei needed was one visit to Pompeii, and he switched careers immediately. An avid numismatist, he wanted to collect more artefacts than just the coins. A founding member of the Russian Archeological Association in St. Petersburg, following a break with Sergei Stroganov of the IAK, he moved to Moscow and formed a rival society. It was Uvarov’s Moscow-based Society that organized the 15 successful archeological congresses, the only sustained academic symposia in Imperial Russia.

Stempkovskii, I. A.

Little is known about Ivan Alekseevich before he was appointed adjutant to the Duc de Richelieu, the Frenchman in Russian service as the Governor of New Russia, 1805-1814. When the Duc returned to Paris in 1814 with the victorious Russian army, he stayed on as the Foreign Minister of the restored Bourbon dynasty. Stempkovskii found himself now attached to M. S. Vorontsov, who would become the new Governor-General. Stempkovskii developed a keen interest in archeology, and when in 1828 Vorontsov appointed him mayor of Kerch, the former Greek Panticapaeum, he expanded excavations and built an archeological museum to take full advantage of the wealth of digs in the area. He himself published on the Bosporan Kingdom, and after his premature death, was buried on Mt. Mithridat. He worked closely with Paul Du Brux, and together they opened the Kul-Oba kurgan in 1830.

Stroganov, S. G.

A scion of one of Russia’s most distinguished families, Sergei Grigorevich began his career in service to the state fighting against Napoleon and rode into Paris in victory. An adjutant to Tsars Alexander I and Nicholas I, he then distinguished himself in the Russo-Turkish Wars of 1828. His interest in archeology began as chairman of the Moscow Society of History and Antiquities in 1836, which directed his focus toward the Greek and Scythian finds in Crimea and New Russia. When Alexander II decided to found an Archeological Commission, he named Stroganov to head it, so the latter moved from Moscow to the imperial capital, where he also took up the education of the heirs to the throne. The Uvarovs often found themselves at loggerheads with Stroganov, and Alexei made Moscow his home base after the former moved to Petersburg. Much of their differences can be epitomized by their archeological museums: Stroganov at the Hermitage, which displayed aesthetic elegance, and Uvarov at his Historical Museum, which featured artefacts for their cultural significance.

Tolstoi, I. I.

Count I. I. Tolstoi, son of the Minister of Posts and Telegraph, would himself become the Minister of Education during the 1905 Revolution; like much else about liberalism in those years, he did not survive the position, but was later elected to the St. Petersburg City Council. A member of the IAK from 1886, he was among those who broke with the IMAO in 1889 in the contest for archeological authority in the empire. A numismatist, he co-edited with Kondakov the commanding five volumes on Russian antiquities. He was also secretary and vice-president of the Academy of Arts, important given the overlap that continued between art and archeology, especially prevalent in Kondakov’s work on iconography.

Tolstoi, M. V.

Count M. V. Tolstoi, educated as a physician at Moscow University, preferred instead the lectures he attended at the Moscow Spiritual Academy. Deciding that medicine did not fit his character, he evolved into an archeologist of Orthodoxy, and fittingly, he lies buried at the Troitse-Sergeeva Monastery. He was also deeply involved with local charities. His cousin, Dmitrii Tolstoi, was one of the most influential of the conservative statemen, serving as both Ober-prokurator of the Holy Synod and Minister of Education, 1865-1880, and then President of the Academy of Sciences.

Tyshkevich, E. P.

Evstafi Pievich Tyshkevich inaugurated archeology in the NW Region. His own national identity belies the complexity of the region: he was Belarusian, Polish, and Lithuanian, and determined to open up the multiple pasts of the region to its inhabitants. With his brother Konstantin he dug numerous kurgans in the 1840s, and they opened a part of their estate to create the first public museum. In 1856 he opened the Vilna Archeological Commission. All of this became Russified following the Polish rebellion of 1863, and much of their museum’s collection was sent to the Rumiantsev Museum. A respected archeologist, he was a member of the Danish Royal Society of Northern Antiquities, the Stockholm Royal Academy of Fine Arts and Antiquities, and the London Archaeological Institute. In St. Petersburg, he was an honorary member of the Academy of Sciences, and as a Groom of the Chamber of the Court of His Imperial Majesty.

Shvarts, A. N.

A. N. Shvartz served briefly as Minister of Education, under Prime Minister Peter Stolypin, 1908-1910, dismissed from such liberal policies as wanting to open universities to women and increase the quota of Jewish students; he also wanted to close all student organizations, Left and Right, in hopes of depoliticizing them. As an educator, he had curated the educational districts of Moscow, Warsaw, and Riga. His academic specialty was Greek literature and epigraphy. In a side note, he had his colleague I. V. Tsvetaev dismissed from the Rumiantsev Museum over a false accusation of theft.

Putiatin, P. A.

From a noble princely family, Putiatin served in the Finnish Guards Regiment and after the emancipation of the serfs he served as both the Chairman of the Noble Assembly and a Justice of the Peace in his native Vyshnevolotskii district of Tver Province. An amateur archeologist, he showed keen interest in the Stone Age and participated actively in the congresses. He also published in French.

Markevich, A. I.

Markevich described himself as self-taught, but gadfly seems the more appropriate adjective. He bounced around in and out of several provincial gymnasia, then got a degree in history from New Russia University, where he then taught for several years. Forced to quit for unexplained reasons in 1895, he became active in public affairs. He participated in numerous congresses, having spent times in archives rather than excavations.