Arguably the most influential historian in Imperial Russia, Kliuchevskii broke with his mentor, the eminent Sergei Solovev, over their differing theoretical approaches to history, which had implications for archeology. Kliuchevskii considered Solovev too driven by state formation, that is, by the archival documents, whereas he preferred social and economic motives, and drew much from material culture.
An archpriest (протоиерей), that is, a member of the white clergy, Gorskii was a professor of dogmatic theology at the Moscow Spiritual Academy and an erudite scholar in the history and archeology of the Russian church, as well as of biblical archeology. He was also a member of the Iaroslavl Natural History Society.
The son of a priest from Vologda Province, Pavel Ivanovich finished his Master’s in 1837 at the St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy, on Ancient Jewish Synogogues. Discovered by historian Mikhail Pogodin, Savvaitov enjoyed a splendid career as a teacher of Russian libterature in both military and commercial schools. His most famous work was a hermeneutical study of the Bible, and his best known contribution to archeology was Description of ancient royal utensils, clothes, weapons, military armor, based on the collection in the Moscow Armoury. He also wrote Travels of the Novgorod Archbishop Anthony to Constantinople at the end of the 12th century and published copiously on the monasteries of his native Vologda. He also published on Finno-Ugric (Zyrian) linguistics.