This refers primarily to religious structures, beginning with the Church of the Tithes, or Desitinnaia tserkov in Kiev. Construction began in 989 to celebrate Vladimir’s baptism to Christianity, and the controversies that erupted over its excavation in the 1840s launched the debate about whether old churches should be restored to their original forms or consistently “updated,” as they had been in the past. This also includes Catholic and Uniate churches “restored” to Orthodoxy in the NW Region, and also the Christian East, the churches in the Caucasus.

Black Sea

More than simply a catch-all, the “Black Sea” pulls together the multiple civilizations that have populated the littoral, ranging freely from Bolgars on the Danube with the “relatives” on the Volga, to Genoese traders, to the short-lived kingdom of Trabzon.

Bronze Age

At the 5th Congress in Tiflis in 1881, Rudolf Virchow gave the speech about there being no substnative Bronze Age in Russia. Lubbock had argued that primitive peoples weent first to gold, because it was in rivers and shiny, and they liked shiny things. Nevostruev had already presented at the first, though, about bronze artefacts found in gorodishche around the Kama River, including Pianii bor, some of which similar to An. mogilnik, but not all.

Cimmerian Bosporus

Various political incarnations, 438 BC to 380 CE. With its capital at Panticapaeum, it was alternately a Greek post and a client state of the Roman Empire. Best known king, Mithridates VI who tried to take on the Romans in 63 CE, and committed suicide after this failure.


This is central to Russian identity; it provides the connection to Antiquity by its interactions with Greek traders, as it also gives Russians an historical foothold on the Black Sea littoral as they began to claim Scythian ancestory.