Redin, E. K.

As a student of Kondakov’s at New Russian University, Redin continued the artistic and intellectual trends begun by Buslaev. A specialist in early Christian minatures and mosaics, he was best known for comparative studies of Byzantine and Old Russian iconocraphy. His most famous studies were conducted in Ravenna, the Christian Pompeii. Active in Kharkov city affairs as a public intellectual, he died young of an unnamed illness. His son Nikolai, godson of N. F. Sumtsov, continued his father’s work as the deputy director of the Institute for Ukrainian Culture named for D. I. Bagalei, only to disappear in the Stalinist purges.

Mel’nik, E. N.

Katerina Mel’nik began studying with Vladimir Antonovich in Kiev, one of the first female archeologists – although dramatically different from Praskovia Uvarova. She and Antonovich carried on an affair until they married in 1902, following the death of his wife. Both active participants in numerous congresses, it is impossible to imagine that others were not aware of this relationship, especially given his close relationship with Praskovia. Katerina published in Kievskaia starina, among other journals. In 1919, she was appointed to the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, but her primary seemed to be editing Antonovich’s massive archive. She also used her position there to try to organize an archeological congress in Odesa circa 1922, but without success.

Khvoiko, V. V.

Born and educated in Bohemia, the Austrian Empire, Vikentii Khvoiko moved to Kiev in 1876. A modest teacher with an amateur’s interest in archeology, digging in the 1890s near a village named Tripol’e he chanced upon what were found to be the oldest settlements in the area from the Carpathian Mountains to the Dnepr River, dating back to the Neolithic Age, circa 5500 BCE. As it turned out, archaeologists in Rumania in the mid-1880s had unearthed ceramic shards in the Cucuteni quarry that were later found to belong to this same culture. Known today as Cucuteni–Trypillia culture, it remains an active archeological site. Khvoiko became one of the most distinguished archeologists of the early 20th century.

Efimenko, A. Ia.

Alexandra Efimenko came to the profession by way of her husband Peter, though ultimately made more significant contributions than he. A native of Arkhangelsk Province, she met and married Peter there in 1870, where he had been exiled from Little Russia for nationalist-oriented activities related to his work as an ethnographer. They returned in 1874, first to Chernigov and then Kharkov; his poor health, and their five children, kept the family dependent upon her publications and lectures. Working extensively in archives, she focused on the evolution of economic and social structures of peasants in various parts of European Russia. Invited to St. Petersburg to teach Ukrainian history in Betstuzhev Female courses, 1907—1917, in 1910 Kharkov University awarded her an Honorary Doctorate of History; she was the first female recipient. Ironically, she was murdered by the Ukrainian nationalist Petliura Army in December 1918. One daughter became a Silver Age poet, and one son an important Soviet archeologist.

Antonovich, V. B.

Coincidentally, the small town in which Antonovich was born, Makhnovka, had been the property of the Tyshkevich family (of Vilna archeological fame) in the 15th century. His parentage was unconventional: though he was registered as nobility, when in fact, he was the bastard son of a Hungarian emigrant revolutionary, but carried his mother’s married name; she had been the governess in the home of a wealthy Polish shlakht (nobleman), and married the male teacher, Bontifatie Antonovich. A Catholic who converted to Orthodoxy, he is considered today a founder of Ukrainian independence, but he’s more complicated than that because he appears to have supported Little Russia as a unique culture within the larger complex of the empire. His personal life was as nearly complicated as his mother’s; married, he nonetheless carried on an affair with a student, Katerina Melnik, from the 1880s until they married in 1902.

Bagalei, D. I.

The consumate Ukrainian, born in Kiev and educated there under V. B. Antonovich, Bagalei specialized in All Russian (vse-rossiiskaia) History, that is, Little Russia. Rising to become rector of Kharkov University, after 1917 he became a member of the Ukrainian Academy of Science and of the archival commission. Throughout his career he was one of those who connected the text to the artefact, and strove to make Kharkov the central such institution in Little Russia, not yet Ukraine. His lively papers at a number of congresses about the uniqe qualities of Little Russian prepared him to participate in the Ukrainization of the region.