An Armenian student who joined Marr on his excavations at Ani, Orbeli became one of the most prominent archeologists of the Armenian Caucasus, also conducting digs at Van and Urartu. However, his best known for his post-revolutionary career, when as director of the Hermitage he made its eastern collection among the best in the world. Skillfully, he managed to navigate the museum through the Stalinist repressions.
Trying to categorize Garkavi is as problematic as deciding which name to use: Avraam/Albert Yakovlevich Harkavy, Авраа́м Я́ковлевич Гарка́ви, or Avraham Eliyahu ben Yaakov Harkavy. History and Wikipedia emphasize his importance as a scholar of Judaism, but that narrows the breadth of his focus and his importance to archeology, especially in decoding manuscripts, especially sources written by Arabic travellers. An Orientalist, he headed the Oriental section at Publichka. There is no immediate tag for someone who was both active in the Jewish community and rose through the ranks to become a member of the Russian hereditary nobility.