Completing his education at St. Petersburg University, Takaishvili returned to his native Tiflis and became an important public figure through his teaching and archeological activities. He worked for both the spread of literacy among the native population, and the collection and publication of ancient Georgian manuscripts. He led excavations to the 10th-century Bagration principality of Tayk Khardjk, in Georgian Turkey, especially interested in its churches. During the Great War he helped to organize digs in Northern Anatolia, expanding Georgia, and after 1917 he helped to found a university in Tbilisi and was a member of the short-lived constituent assembly. He took his enormous collection of Georgian antiquities to Paris, where he kept them until he was able to return with them after World War II; the return of the antiquities eased relations between Stalin and de Gaulle. Then, he lived under house arrest in Tbilisi; Georgian Church canonized him in 2002.
The son of a classical philologist, Mikhail Ivanovich followed and exceeded by becoming a scholar of international repute, interlacing the cultural influences in the southern region of the Russian empire. A student of Scythia, Hellenism, and Rome antiquity, his “Iranians and Greeks in South Russia” (1922) remains a canonical work on ancient history. Prolific even before his emigration to the United States after the Bolshevik Revolution, he began shaping the field from Russia. Although he wrote also in German and was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, his anti-German stance during the Great War prevented his acceptance there. He served as president of the American Historical Association in 1935.
Best known as one of the founders of the Kadet Party in post-1905 Russia, and very briefly the Minister of Foreign Affairs in the first Provisional Government after Nicholas II’s abdication, Miliukov became an archeologist for a few years by happenstance. Twice exiled from Moscow in the 1890s because of his participation in political protests at the university, where he had studied and then taught history, Miliukov went to Riazan for two years, where he worked on the local Archival Commission, and then later as a history professor at the University of Sophia. In both places he joined with locals and participated in excavations, and presented his findings at three archeological congresses. He attended as a representative of the Riazan Archival Commission and a history professor from Sophia.
Wealthy and well-educated, a history professor who lectured at Oxford and numerous other Western universities, Kovalevskii worked primarily on the history of Western Europe. An archive rat, his membership in the IMAO bespeaks the importance of that society, because he was not an active archeologist. Elected to the First State Duma after 1905 as a member of the Progressist Party, and he was also appointed to the State Council. In 1912, he was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize.